Upgrade Kubernetes cluster on AWS#

Pre-requisites#

  1. Install/upgrade CLI tools

    Refer to Prerequisites on how to do this.

    Important

    Ensure you have the latest version of eksctl, it matters.

  2. Learn/recall how to generate an eksctl config file

    When upgrading an EKS cluster, we will use eksctl extensively and reference a generated config file, $CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml. It’s generated from the the $CLUSTER_NAME.jsonnet file.

    # re-generate an eksctl config file for use with eksctl
    jsonnet $CLUSTER_NAME.jsonnet > $CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml
    

Cluster upgrade#

1. Prepare two terminal sessions#

Start two terminal sessions and set CLUSTER_NAME=... in both.

In the first terminal, setup your AWS credentials (according to this documentation) and change you working directory to the eksctl folder.

In the second terminal, setup k8s credentials with deployer use-cluster-credentials $CLUSTER_NAME.

Note

If you would use deployer use-cluster-credentials where you have setup your AWS credentials, you would no longer act as your your AWS user but the hub-deployer-user that doesn’t have the relevant permissions to work with eksctl.

2. Check cluster status and activity#

Before upgrading, get a sense of the current status of the cluster and users activity in it.

# get nodes, and k8s version, and their node group names
# - what node groups are active currently?
kubectl get node --label-columns=alpha.eksctl.io/nodegroup-name

# get all pods
# - are there any non-running/non-ready pod with issues before upgrading?
kubectl get pod -A

# get users' server and dask cluster pods
# - how many user servers are currently running?
# - is this an acceptable time to upgrade?
kubectl get pod -A -l "component=singleuser-server"
kubectl get pod -A -l "app.kubernetes.io/component in (dask-scheduler, dask-worker)"

3. Notify in slack#

Notify others in 2i2c that your are starting this cluster upgrade in the #maintenance-notices Slack channel.

4. Upgrade the k8s control plane#

4.1. Upgrade the k8s control plane one minor version#

The k8s control plane can only be upgraded one minor version at the time,[1] so increment the version field in the .jsonnet file.

{
   name: "openscapeshub",
   region: clusterRegion,
   version: "1.29", # increment this
}

Re-generate the .yaml file, and then perform the upgrade which typically takes ~10 minutes. This upgrade is not expected to be disruptive for EKS clusters as they come with multiple replicas of the k8s api-server.

jsonnet $CLUSTER_NAME.jsonnet > $CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml
eksctl upgrade cluster --config-file=$CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml --approve

Note

If you see the error Error: the server has asked for the client to provide credentials don’t worry, if you try it again you will find that the cluster is now upgraded.

4.2. Upgrade EKS add-ons#

As documented in eksctl’s documentation[1], we also need to upgrade three EKS add-ons managed by eksctl (by EKS these are considered self-managed add-ons), and one declared in our config (by EKS this is considered a managed add-on).

These upgrades are believed to briefly disrupt networking.

# upgrade the kube-proxy daemonset (takes ~5s)
eksctl utils update-kube-proxy --config-file=$CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml --approve

# upgrade the aws-node daemonset (takes ~5s)
eksctl utils update-aws-node --config-file=$CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml --approve

# upgrade the coredns deployment (takes ~5s)
eksctl utils update-coredns --config-file=$CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml --approve

# upgrade the aws-ebs-csi-driver addon's deployment and daemonset (takes ~60s)
eksctl update addon --config-file=$CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml

4.3. Repeat to upgrade multiple minor versions#

If you need to upgrade multiple minor versions, repeat the previous steps starting with the minor version upgrade.

5. Upgrade node groups#

All of the cluster’s node groups should be upgraded. Strategies to upgrade nodes are introduced in About strategies to upgrade nodes.

  1. First upgrade the core node group with a rolling upgrade using drain.

  2. Then upgrade user node group(s) with rolling upgrades without using drain, or using re-creation upgrades if they aren’t running or empty.

Before committing to a node group upgrade its upgrade strategy, overview currently active nodes:

kubectl get node --label-columns=alpha.eksctl.io/nodegroup-name

Performing rolling upgrades (using drain or not)#

  1. Create a new node group

    If you are going to use drain (core node groups), rename the node group you want to do a rolling upgrade on in the .jsonnet file, for example by adjusting a nameSuffix from a to b. If you aren’t going to use drain (user node groups), add a duplicate but renamed entry instead.

    Node group names are set by namePrefix, nameSuffix, and nameIncludeInstanceType. Example node group names are core-b, nb-r5-xlarge, nb-r5-xlarge-b, dask-r5-4xlarge.

    # create a new node group (takes ~5 min)
    # IMPORTANT: review the --include flag's value
    
    jsonnet $CLUSTER_NAME.jsonnet > $CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml
    eksctl create nodegroup --config-file=$CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml --include="core-b"
    
  2. Optionally taint and wait

    If you aren’t going to forcefully drain the old node group’s nodes, you have to wait for the nodes to empty out before deleting the old node group.

    First taint the old node group’s nodes to stop new pods from scheduling on them. Doing this also prevents the cluster-autoscaler from scaling up new such nodes, at least until they have all scaled down.

    kubectl taint node manual-phaseout:NoSchedule -l alpha.eksctl.io/nodegroup-name=core-b
    

    Then a comment in the .jsonnet file above to the old node group saying:

    // FIXME: tainted, to be deleted when empty, replaced by equivalent during k8s upgrade
    

    You can now commit changes and come back to the final deletion step at a later point in time.

  3. Delete the old node group

    If you added a duplicate renamed node group, then first remove the old node group in the .jsonnet file.

    # drains and deletes node groups not found in config (takes ~20s if the node groups has no running nodes)
    # IMPORTANT: note that --approve is needed and commented out
    
    jsonnet $CLUSTER_NAME.jsonnet > $CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml
    eksctl delete nodegroup --config-file=$CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml --only-missing # --approve
    

    Note

    The eksctl managed drain operation may get stuck but you could help it along by finding the pods that fail to terminate with kubectl get pod -A, and then manually forcefully terminating them with kubectl delete pod --force <...>.

Performing re-creation upgrades#

If you do maintenance on a cluster with no running user workloads (user servers, dask gateway workers), a quick and simple strategy is to delete all user node groups and then re-create them. The eksctl [delete|create] nodegroup commands can work with multiple node group at the time by using wildcards in the --include flag.

  1. Delete node group(s)

    # delete the node groups (takes ~20s if the node groups has no running nodes)
    # IMPORTANT: review the --include flag's value
    # IMPORTANT: note that --approve is needed and commented out
    
    eksctl delete nodegroup --config-file=$CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml --include="nb-*,dask-*" # --approve
    
  2. Wait ~60 seconds

    If we don’t wait now, our create command may fail without an error and instead log a message like # existing nodegroup(s) (…) will be excluded. If it happens though, you can just re-run the create command though.

  3. Re-create node group(s)

    # re-create node group(s) (takes ~5 min)
    # IMPORTANT: review the --include flag's value
    
    eksctl create nodegroup --config-file=$CLUSTER_NAME.eksctl.yaml --include="nb-*,dask-*"
    

6. Notify in slack#

Notify others in 2i2c that you’ve finalized the cluster upgrade in the #maintenance-notices Slack channel.

7. Commit changes#

During this upgrade, the k8s version and possibly the node group name might have been changed. Make sure you commit this changes after the upgrade is finished.

References#